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Mr. Kersey's Study Guides for Super Motivated Students

These are bare bones study guides for students who want to prepare for tests but aren't sure where to begin. Really they are just lists of stuff you need to know. If you can explain the significance, or importance, of the people, places, terms, and events on these lists, and explain their causes and effects (where applicable), then you'll be in great shape for the test. I don't have study guides for every chapter, but I am always happy to make one if students request one, so if you're looking for a study guide and it's not here, just ask me to make one for you.

Be advised that all material from the reading, including vocabulary, and from class is always fair game for a test. These guides are just here to help you focus on the most important material that will be on the test. As always, please let me know if you have any questions.

STOP! A Note on Printing: Students, do not simply click "print" from anywhere on this page. If you do you will print the entire set of study guides, which could be twenty or more pages. Instead, copy and paste the study guide you want into a text editor or word processing application, and print from there. You can also just select the study guide you want and choose the "Print Selection" option from the Printing dialouge box. You have been warned.

Study Guides for U.S. History (8th Grade)

Study Guides for 8th Grade Religion

Study Guides for World History (7th Grade)

Study Guides for U.S. History (8th Grade)

Chapter 2: Exploring the Americas

Be able to explain how the following all contributed to a new age of exploration:
the Crusades,
the growth of trade,
the growth of ideas,
the Renaissance,
and new technology

Kingdoms and Empires in Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Vikings in North America
The Search for Trade routes
Portugal and Henry the Navigator
Dias
Vasco da Gama
Cabral
Columbus' accomplishments
Spain's goals for the New World
Amerigo Vespucci
Magellan
Spain's conquest of North America
Aztec
Inca
Reasons for Spain’s victory
Life under Spanish rule
Plantation system
Competition for land in the New World
Religious rivalry in Europe and the Americas
The Spanish Armada and effects of its defeat
The Northwest Passage
The French in America
French relationship with native Americans
Dutch settlements in North America

Chapter 3: Colonial America

All key terms
King Philip II
Queen Elizabeth
Sir Francis Drake
Lost Colony of Roanoke
Sir Walter Raleigh
John White
Virginia Company
joint-stock company
Chesapeake Bay
James River
Jamestown
Captain John Smith
Pocahontas
John Rolfe
House of Burgesses
New England Colonies
Puritans
Separatists
Pilgrims
The Mayflower
William Bradford
The Mayflower Compact
Squanto
Samoset
Wampanoag
Charles I
Massachusetts Bay Company
John Winthrop
Thomas Hooker
Connecticut
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Roger Williams
Conflict with Native Americans in the colonies
King Philip's War
The Middle Colonies
New Netherland
New Amsterdam
Peter Stuyvesant
Charles II
Duke of York
New York
New Jersey
William Penn
Pennsylvania
Quakers
The Southern Colonies
indentured servants
Maryland
Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
Cecilius Calvert
religious tension in Maryland
Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon
John Locke
The Carolinas
Georgia
James Oglethorpe
French and Spanish settlements in North America

Chapter 4: The Growth of the English Colonies

The Colonial regions, economic activities, geographical features, governments, etc.
The New England colonies
The Middle Colonies
The Southern Colonies
Subsistence farming
Middle Passage
Reasons for slavery
Triangular trade
Cash crops
Slave code
Glorious Revolution
Charles II
James II
William and Mary
Navigation Acts
Mercantilism
Charter colonies
Proprietary Colonies
Royal colonies
Voting rights in the colonies
Great Awakening
New England Primer, education in the colonies
The Enlightenment
John Peter Zenger
British-French Rivalry in North America, the World
Native American alliances, Iroquois Confederacy
George Washington
Fort Duquesne
Ohio Valley Region
Allegheny River
Monongahela River
Ohio River
Albany Plan of Union
Ben Franklin
Battle of Quebec
General Edward Braddock
Seven Years' War
William Pitt
The Treaty of Paris (1763)
Pontiac's War
Proclamation of 1763

Chapter 5: The Spirit of Independence

The French and Indian War
The Seven Years War
Proclamation of 1763
George Grenville
writs of assistance
Vice-Admiralty Courts
The Sugar Act
"No taxation without representation!"
repeal
The Stamp Act
Patrick Henry
Samuel Adams
Sons of Liberty
boycott
Declaratory Act
The Townshend Acts
Daughters of Liberty
Boston Massacre
Crispus Attucks
propaganda
Committees of Correspondence
The Tea Act
Boston Tea Party
King George III
The Coercive Acts
The Intolerable Acts
The Quartering Act
Continental Congress
John Adams
John Jay
George Washington
Suffolk Resolves
Militia
Minute Men
Lexington
Concord
Paul Revere
Bunker Hill
Patriots
Loyalists
Second Continental Congress
Continental Army
Ben Franklin
John Hancock
Thomas Jefferson
Olive Branch Petition
Sir William Howe
Thomas Paine
Common Sense
Declaration on Independence
Preamble of the Declaration of Independence

Chapter 6: The American Revolution

This list is in no particular order. My apologies.

King George III
Minutemen
Gen. Thomas Gage
Paul Revere
Lexington
Concord
Redcoats
Hessians
Second Continental Congress
George Washington
Continental Army
Recruiting for the Continental Army - Challenges
Siege
Bunker Hill
Breed's Hill
Dorchester Heights
Gen. William Howe
Thomas Paine
Common Sense
Patriots
Loyalists
Advantages of British v. Continental Armies
Battle of Trenton
Battle of Princeton
Battle of Saratoga (and the 3 major effects)
General Burgoyne
France and Spain
Valley Forge
Marquis de Lafayette
Baron Friedrich von Steuben
Inflation and money problems faced by the Patriots
Blockade
privateers
Guerilla warfare
Long and Short Term Causes and Effects of the Revolution
General Clinton
General Cornwallis
Battle of Yorktown
The Newburgh Conspiracy
Treaty of Paris of 1783

Chapter 7: A More Perfect Union 1777-1790

Nature of the state governments
Articles of Confederation
Land Ordinance of 1785
Northwest Ordinance, 1787
Northwest Territory and slavery
Problems with the Articles
Trade with Britain and Spain
Impact of closed markets
interstate commerce
economic problems in the states
Shays' Rebellion
Constitutional Convention
delegates
The Great Compromise
The Virginia Plan
The New Jersey Plan
The Three-Fifths Compromise
Differences between the Articles and The Constitution
Three Branches of Government and their jobs
balance of power
checks and balances
Ideas behind Government
John Locke
Two Treatises of Civil Government (1690)
Baron de Montesquieu
The Spirit of Laws (1748)
Natural rights
Enlightenment
Magna Carta, 1215
Federalism
Ratification fight: Main arguments, etc.
Federalists
Anti-Federalists
Federalist Papers
Shared Powers
Delegated Powers (Specific examples)
Reserved Powers
Bill of Rights

Chapter 8: The Constitution

7 major principles of the Constitution
Popular Sovereignty
Republicanism
Limited Government
Federalism
Separation of Powers (examples of powers)
Checks and Balances (examples)
Individual Rights
Republic
Representative democracy
Enumerated (delegated) powers
Concurrent (shared) powers
Reserved powers
The amendment process
The Supremacy Clause
The elastic clause
The commerce clause
Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
Implied powers
Legislative branch
Article I of the Constitution
Congress (size, purpose, functions)
Lawmaking process
House of Representatives (size, terms, requirements, special duties)
Senate (size, terms, requirements, special duties)
Non-voting delegates
The Executive Branch
Article II of the Constitution
Electoral college
Roles and Powers of the President
The Cabinet
The Vice President (Roles)
Line of Succession
The Judicial Branch
Article III of the Constitution
The Federal Court System
The Supreme Court
Supreme Court Justices (roles, requirements, terms)
Judicial Review
Bill of Rights
Three basic categories of rights of U.S. citizens
Due process
Equal protection under the law
Basic freedoms
Limits on rights
Citizenship (requirements, roles)
Duties of a U.S. citizen
Responsibilities of a U.S. citizen

Chapter 9: The Federalist Era

George Washington
The first presidential election
the electoral college
Martha Washington
Setting precedents
Alexander Hamilton
Thomas Jefferson
The Judiciary Act
Hamilton's plan for settling the national debt
bonds
National Bank debate
Jefferson vs. Hamilton on the economy
Jefferson vs. Hamilton on the Constitution
strict construction
loose construction
The French Revolution
US foreign policy and France
The Neutrality Proclamation
Edmond Genêt (a.k.a. Citizen Genêt)
Jay's Treaty
Pickney's Treaty
Little Turtle
Northwest Territory
Gen. "Mad Anthony" Wayne
Treaty of Greenville
Whiskey rebellion
Washington's Advice to the Nation (Farewell Address)
John Adams
The elections of 1796 and 1800
The Federalist Party
The Democratic-Republican Party
The XYZ Affair
The Alien and Sedition Acts, causes and effects
frigates
12th Amendment

Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era

Jefferson as president - plans, actions, philosophy, etc.
Laissex-faire
Aaron Burr
Judiciary Act of 1801
Marbury v. Madison
McCulloch v. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Judicial Review
John Marshall
James Madison
Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte
Louisiana Purchase
St. Dominigue (Haiti)
New Orleans
Mississippi River
Lewis & Clark's expedition
Sacagawea
Piracy
Barbary States
Barbary Coast
Neutrality violations by Britain and France
Embargo Act
Nonintercourse Act
Tecumseh
Henry Clay
John C. Calhoun
War of 1812
Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry
Battle of lake Erie
Burning of Washington, D.C.
The Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson
Treaty of Ghent
Star Spangled Banner

Chapter 11: Growth and Expansion

Industrial Revolution (effects on the North)
cotton gin
Eli Whitney
interchangeable parts
patent
factory system
capitalism
capital
free enterprise
expansion of agriculture (and effects)
development of corporations
urbanization
movement westward, western settlement
census
turnpike
canal
lock
The Era of Good Feelings
sectionalism
state sovereignty
John C. Calhoun
Daniel Webster
American system
internal improvements, i.e. roads, canals
James Monroe
The Monroe Doctrine (and change it represented)
The Missouri Compromise (terms and weaknesses)
Henry Clay (the Great Compromiser)
American System (3 parts)
protective tariffs
McCulloch v. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Convention of 1818
Adams-Onis Treaty
Simon Bolivar

Chapter 12: The Jackson Era

Elections of 1824 and 1828
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
Henry Clay
The "corrupt bargain"
The J.Q. Adams presidency
Democratic-Republicans
National Republicans
Mudslinging
John C. Calhoun
Expansion of Democracy under Jackson, a.k.a. Jacksonian Democracy
The spoils system
Caucus
Nominating conventions
The tariff debate
States' rights
Nullification Act
Secession
Westward expansion and Indian Removal
Indian Removal Act
Indian Territory
The Cherokee Nation
Worcester v Georgia
The Trail of Tears
General Winfield Scott
Jackson vs. The Bank of the United States
Daniel Webster
Martin Van Buren
McCulloch v. Maryland
The Election of 1832
The Panic of 1837
Whigs and problems they faced
William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
James Polk

Chapter 14: North and South

The North's industrial economy
Causes and Effects of the Industrial Revolution (1790-1860)
textiles
breakthroughs in manufacturing
technology
Eli Whitney
interchangeable parts
mass production
the growth of manufacturing
factories
life for factory workers
working conditions
unions
strikes
labor reforms
urbanization and its problems
immigration, causes and sources
Know-Nothing Party
The South's agricultural economy
free African-Americans
the plantation system
religion in the South
the cotton gin
the urban south
the growth of cotton and the cotton boom
the slave system
scientific agriculture
life under slavery
the growth of slavery
spirituals
Southern society and social order
challenging slavery
planters/growers
Nat Turner's Rebellion
small farmers/yeomen farmers
slave culture
poor whites
slaves

Chapter 16: Toward Civil War

major causes of Secession
The Missouri Compromise
Sectionalism
Free-Soil Party
Zachary Taylor
John C. Calhoun
Henry Clay
Martin Van Buren
Compromise of 1850
Stephen Douglas
Fugitive Slave Act
Underground Railroad
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Problems with popular sovereignty
Bleeding Kansas
John Brown
Raid on Harper’s Ferry
The Republican Party
Dred Scott Decision
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Freeport Doctrine
Election of 1860
Seccession
Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
Fort Sumter

Study Guides for 8th Grade Religion

Study Guides for World History (7th Grade)

Chapter 1: What Does a Historian Do?

Why study the past?
Measuring time
decades
centuries
millennium
Prehistory
Ancient History
Middle Ages
Modern Ages
Information Age
calendar
Julian calendar
Gregorian calendar
Pope Gregory XIII
A.D.
anno domini
B.C.
reading and using time lines
Heinrich Schliemann
archeology
artifacts
paleontology
fossils
anthropology
using evidence
primary sources
secondary sources
reliability of sources
The Domesday Book
point of view
bias
the interpretation of evidence
drawing conclusions/different conclusions
inference

Chapter 2: Studying Geography, Economics, and Government

hemispheres
latitude and longitude (and using these to locate places on a map)
map distortion and projections
The Five Themes of Geography (including all lecture material)
The Six Essential Elements of Geography
Maps: types, how to read them, parts of a map
Economics: Why do people trade?
resources and production
types of resources
supply and demand
drawing supply and demand curves
equilibrium price
economic systems: traditional, subsistence, command, mixed, and market economies
want
consumer
producer
goods
services
bartering
Capitalism
Socialism
Communism
business cycle
trade
globalization
principles of U.S. government
rights of citizens
duties and responsibilities of citizens
global citizenry
Important Idea: The value that a society places on individual rights is reflected in that society's government.

Chapter 3: The Ancient Greeks

All vocabulary from the chapter
Review all maps in chapter
Geography of Greece and its influence
Crete
Knossos
Minoans
Mycenaeans
Mycenaean Kingdoms
Mycenaean trade
Dark Age - Decline of the Mycenaeans
The Dorians
Benefits of Dorian invasion
The Hellenes
Greek colonies and trade
Benefits of money
Greek city-states
polis
Greek citizenship, right s and responsibilities
Hoplites
Tyrants, democracy, oligarchy
Spartan society
Spartan government
Spartan economic problems
Anthenian society, culture
Early reforms in Athens
Solon
Peisistratus
Athenian government
Cleisthenes
Council of 500, lottery
Persian empire
Cyrus the Great
Royal Road, benefits
Darius I
Benefits of satraps
Persian army, the Immortals
Zoroaster
The Persian Wars
The Battle at Marathon
Xerxes
King Leonidas
Themistocles
Battle at Thermopylae
The stand of the 300
Naval battle at Salamis
Decline of Persia
Pericles
Direct democracy
Representative democracy
Athens under Pericles
Life in Athens
Slavery in Athens
Athenian economy
Causes/effects of Peloponnesian War
Pericles funeral oration
Why Athens lost the Peloponnesian War
Thebes

Chapter 4: Greek Civilization

Greek beliefs
Gods and goddesses
Oracles
Epics
Fables
The Trojan Horse
The Odyssey
The Iliad
Aesop
Greek drama
Sophocles
Euripides
Greek architecture
Greek thinkers
Philosophers
Philosophy
The Sophists
Socrates
Plato
The Republic
Aristotle
Greek ideas about history
Herodotus
Thucydides
Pythagoras
Philip II of Macedonia
Alexander the Great
Alexander's war with Persia
Darius III
Geography of Alexander's empire
Alexander's Legacy
Alexandria
The Hellenistic Kings
Hellenistic writers
Epicurus
The Stoics
Zeno
Aristarchus
Euclid
Eratosthenes
Archimedes
Rise of Rome

Chapter 5: Rome - Republic to Empire

The location and geography of Rome
Tiber River
Origins of Rome
Romulus and Remus
Virgil
The Aeneid
Influences of the Greeks
Influences of the Etruscans
Roman battle strategies
Republic
Roman Confederation
Roman Society
Government during the Republic
Consuls
Praetors
Senate
Tribunes
Council of Plebs
Dictator
Cincinnatus
Roman Law
The Twelve Tables
Law of Nations
Rule of Law
The Punic Wars – Causes and Effects
Carthage
Hannibal
Scipio
Battle of Zama
Problems in the Republic
Rich vs. Poor
Economic problems in the Republic
Politics and the Roman Army
Marius
Sulla
Julius Caesar
Crassus
Pompey
Triumvirate
Conquests of Caesar
Rubicon
The Rule of Caesar
Beginning of the Empire
Octavian
Antony
Cleopatra
Cicero
Caesar Augustus
The rule of Augustus
Rhine River
Danube River
Euphrates River
Proconsuls
Emperors after Augustus
The Pax Romana
Five “Good” Emperors
Trajan
Hadrian
The Empire’s Economy
Trade
Agriculture

Chapter 6: Roman Civilization

Daily life in the Roman Empire
Life in the city of Rome
"bread and circuses"
Gladiators
The Roman family
Roles of family members in Ancient Rome
Rights of women
Slavery in Rome
Spartacus
Roman religion
Roman Achievements
Ptolemy
Roman roads
Appian Way
Aqueducts
Arches
Roman numerals
Roman art
Concrete
Roman literature
Virgil
The Aeneid
Satires
Odes
Livy
Tacitus
Latin
Pax Romana
Marcus Aurelius
Three reasons for the decline of Rome: Political weakness, Economic weakness, Invasions
Diocletian
Constantine
Byzantium
Constantinople
Theodosius
The split of the empire
Germanic invaders
Huns
Visigoths
Alaric
The Vandals
Odoacer
The final fall of Rome
Rome's Legacies
Rome's influence on American law, government
Effects of Roman culture
Growth of Christianity
The Byzantine Empire
"New Rome"
Greek influence on the Byzantines
Justinian
Theodora
Justinian’s legal reforms
"Justinian’s Plague"

Chapter 8: Islamic Civilization

Islam
Arabian Peninsula
oasis
desert life
nomads, bedouins
sheik
trade in the Arabian Peninsula
caravans
Mecca (Makkah)
Muhammad
Allah
Yathrib/Madinah
Hijrah
Quran
shari'ah
sunna
Muslim beliefs
caliph
The Umayyads
sufis
Sunni
Shia
the Abbasids
Seljuk Turks
sultan
Spread the Islam - conquest, trade, preaching
The Ottomans
The Safavids
The Moguls
daily life and trade in the Islamic world
Mosques
bazaar
Muslim contributions to the world
geography of the Islamic world/empires

Chapter 9: African Civilizations

All Key Terms
Geography of Africa
Climate zones of Africa
Sahara
Sahel
Saharan Trade
caravans
Asian camel
Berbers
trade goods in Africa
Ghana
Mali
Sundiata
Timbuktu
Mansa Musa
Songhai
Sunni Ali
East African Kingdoms
Kush
Axum
Zimbabwe
Rulers and government in Africa's kingdoms
traditional African religions
Ibn Battuta
Islam in Africa and its effects
African Society
Bantu Migrations
The Slave Trade
African slavery
European slave trade
sugar plantaions and slavery
Culture in Africa

Chapter 14: Renaissance and Reformation

The Italian Renaissance
Trade with Asia
Reasons for beginning of the Italian Renaissance
Silk Road
Marco Polo
Crusades
Black Death
Venice
Genoa
Milan
Florence
Manufacturing and specialization
Banking
interest
Medici family
Renaissance
Humanism
Greek and Roman influenc
Niccolo Machiavelli
The Prince
New artistic techniques
Michelangelo
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance man
Printing press
Johann Gutenberg
Miguel de Cervantes
Don Quixote
William Shakespeare
The Reformation
Complaints about certain Church practices
Indulgences
Martin Luther
Ninety-Five Theses
Pope Leo X
Charles V
Protestants
Interpretation of Scripture
The Lutheran Church
William Tyndale
John Calvin
Predestination
Calvinists
Henry VIII
Anglican Church
Catholic Reformation
Jesuits
The Council of Trent – changes and decisions
Results of the Reformation
Religious wars
Treaty of Westphalia