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Sample Test Questions

The following questions are examples of the kinds of questions my students will be expected to answer on a test. Virtually all of these questions have been taken directly from tests that I have actually given. They are arranged by chapter from our current (and previous) text books.

The purpose of these sample questions is to help students prepare for assessments, to see the most common types of questions I ask, and to have a chance to practice answering short answer/essay questions. You will see that most of the questions here are short answer. Virtually all of my tests contain short answer/essay questions so it is important to master the skills necessary for writing an excellent answer. Some simple steps that students should follow when answering my test questions (or really any essay question) are:

  1. Start off by answering the question (i.e. stating your main idea, or argument) clearly.
  2. Next, state several specific facts that support your answer or argument. A good rule of thumb is to use three facts to support each idea.
  3. End your paragraph with a "clincher" sentence that sums up your argument.
(Don't worry, we'll talk more about all this in class).

STOP! A Note on Printing: Students, do not simply click "print" from anywhere on this page. If you do you will print the entire set of sample test questions, which could be twenty or more pages. Instead, copy and paste the questions you want into a text editor or word processing application, and print from there. You can also just select the questions you want and choose the "Print Selection" option from the Printing dialouge box.

Sample Test Questions for U.S. History (8th Grade)
Sample Test Questions for World History (7th Grade)
Sample Test Questions for 8th Grade Religion - Creed
Sample Test Questions for 8th Grade Religion - Catholic Faith Handbook
Sample Test Questions for 8th Grade Religion - Church History
Sample Test Questions for Geography

Sample Test Questions for U.S. History (8th Grade)

The following questions are examples of the kinds of questions an 8th grade U.S. History student will be expected to answer on a test. All of these questions have been taken directly from tests that I have actually given. They are arranged by chapter from our current text book.

Chapter 2: Exploring the Americas

1. Briefly explain how the modern nation-state emerged in Europe in the 1400s.
2. How did the growth of trade between Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe encourage Europeans to seek out new trade routes?
3. How did the Renaissance contribute to European exploration?
4. How did the rise of nation-states cause European exploration to flourish?
5. Discuss some of the events and technological developments that paved the way for European exploration.
6. How did the Portuguese take the lead in the race for Asian trade routes?
7. How did Spain and Portugal divide their new territories?
8. Why did both Spain and Portugal want to find a sea route to Asia?
9. What was the effect of smallpox on the Mexican people, and how did it help Cortés and the other Conquistadors.
10. What factors helped Cortés defeat the Aztecs?
11. What were some of the long-range effects of the Spanish colonization of the Americas? Give at least two examples and explain.
12. List and briefly discuss four reasons for the establishment of of European colonies in North America.
13. Use the reading selection below to answer the question that follows.
"These people in the Caribbean have no creed and they are not idolaters, but they are very gentle and do not know what it is to be wicked, or to kill others, or to steal...and they are sure that we come from Heaven....So your Highnesses should resolve to make them Christians, for I believe that if you begin, in a little while you will achieve the conversion of a great number of peoples to our holy faith, with the acquisition of great lordships and riches and all their inhabitants for Spain. For without doubt there is a very great amount of gold in these lands...."
-Christopher Columbus in his report to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.

Why, according to Columbus, should Spain be interested in colonizing the New World?

14. The following excerpt is from Thomas Mun's England's Treasure By Forraign Trade (1664).

"The ordinary means therefore to increase our wealth and treasure is by Forraign [foreign] Trade, wherein wee [we] must ever observe this rule; to sell more to strangers yearly than wee consume of theirs in value."
Based on the above quote, what is the central principle of mercantilism according to Mun?

Chapter 3: Colonial America

1. Explain the headright system set up by the London Company in 1618. (I)
2. In the early years of the Virginia Colony, around 75% of the colonists were indentured servants. Give two reasons why someone would want to come to the colonies as an indentured servant. What did they have to gain? (I)
3. Because of high death rates in the Virginia Colony, there was a shortage of labor. People just didn't live very long in the early days of the English colonies. At first white farmers brought over indentured servants to do the work instead of expensive slaves because of these high death rates. Why would plantation owners prefer indentured servants to slaves? What do you think happened after death rates declines in the late-1600's? (I, IV, II)
4. Compare and contrast the experiences of the Pilgrims and the first Jamestown settlers? (I)
5. Why might the Quaker faith have attracted colonial women? (I, II)
6. How was William Penn's relationship with American Indians different from most other colonies? (I, II)
7. How was Jamestown (and the Virginia colony) different agriculturally from the Plymouth Colony (and Massachusetts)? (I, III)
8. Why did the early colonies in North America establish settlements near rivers and the Atlantic Ocean? (III)
9. Why was slavery and indentured servitude more important to the economy of the Southern colonies than in New England? (I, IV, II)
10. Thinking of all the English colonies that we have discussed, what are the two major reasons people came to the New World? (I, IV, II)
11. You are the proprietor of a new English colony in America. You want your colony to be successful and to grow. Discuss how you would deal with the American Indians in your area. Also, talk about how you would handle the issue of people with different religious views mixing together in your colony. (I, II)
12. Why was tobacco, a crop you can't eat, able to save Virginia economically? (I, IV)

Chapter 4: Growth of the Thirteen Colonies

1. What effects did the geography have on the economic development of the New England colonies?
2. You are a wealthy colonist. You own a large tobacco plantation and several slaves. Your good friend George also makes a nice living building ships in the harbor a few miles away. In what colonial region do you most likely live? Explain your answer.
3. Flambard Headstrong lives a quiet hobbit life with his family in the New Shire, a beautiful settlement in New England. Flambard and his hired worker Bobo are farmers. What kinds of crops does Flambard most likely grow?
4. You are the captain of a ship that sails the Atlantic Ocean using the trade routes known as the Triangular Trade. Describe what sorts of goods you carry as cargo on each leg of your circuit around the Atlantic.
5. In the Southern colonies, most plantations were located in the Tidewater region. Many plantations were also situated on a river. Why would these areas be desirable for plantation owners?
6. Explain the effects of the Navigation Acts on the colonial economy.
7. Explain the relationship between education and religion in the New England colonies.
8. You are a member of the great Huron tribe of Indians in the Ohio Valley region. You definitely prefer to trade with the French over the English for weapons and tools. Why?
9. What was the primary cause of conflict between the British colonists and the native Americans in the Ohio Valley region?
10. Why would the Proclamation of 1763 anger British colonists, particularly speculators?
11. What were the causes of Pontiac's War and how did that war lead to the Proclamation of 1763?
12. The starship Enterprise has traveled back in time to the year 1760 and arrived over North America. Captain Kirk orders Mr. Spock to conduct a study of the economy of the middle colonies. How should Mr. Spock describe the economy of the middle colonies to Captain Kirk?
13. Explain the positive and negative effects of mercantilism on the colonies.
14. Explain the relationship between mercantilism, the Navigation Acts, and Triangular Trade.
15. Explain the three main principles of mercantilism. Be sure to give examples from both the colonial period and from the present day.
16. Han Solo is a smuggler. He and his sidekick Chewbacca use their ship, the Millennium Falcon, to sneak illegal goods past Imperial officials. English colonists did the same thing with British officials. Why did the colonists need to smuggle goods in and out of the colonies?

Chapter 5: The Spirit of Independence

1. Why did the British have to leave troops in the colonies after the French and Indian War? (II)
2. What was the chief argument of the colonists against taxes such as the Sugar Act or the Stamp Act? (II)
3. What cultural trait made American colonists more likely to resist the taxes and laws passed by Parliament than their fellow British subjects across the ocean? (II)
4. How did the propaganda surrounding the "Boston Massacre" influence colonists?
5. You are a colonist living in New York in 1768. You own a small farm and occasionally you and your family sell milk, homemade butter, and ale to your neighbors and the people in the nearby village for a little extra money. How are you affected by the Townshend Acts and what do you think of them? (II)
6. You are a merchant in Boston in 1773. You own a coffee house which also sells tea - a lot of tea. What are your concerns after you find out Parliament has passed the Tea Act? (II)
7. You are an important member of Parliament in 1774. You have just voted for the passage of the Coercive Acts. Why do you think it is so important for the British government to maintain control over the colonies? (II)
8.You are a merchant living in a town just outside of Philadelphia. Tensions have reached a fever pitch between the British government and the colonists. War has broken out, and the colonists have declared independence. It is time for you to choose a side. Say whether you will choose to support the loyalists or the patriots and give two reasons for your decision. (II)
9. Explain the relationship between The Declaration of Independence and the ideas of John Locke. (V)
10. The following is an excerpt from British writer Samuel Johnson’s 1775 pamphlet, Taxation No Tyranny.
“He who goes voluntarily to America, cannot complain of losing what he leaves in Europe…. By his own choice he has left a country where he had a vote and little property, for another where he has great property, but no vote.” – From The Works of Samuel Johnson

Based on this document, did Johnson agree with the colonists’ argument that they were being unfairly taxed without representation? (II, VI)

Chapter 6: The American Revolution

1. As the revolution began, the British had some serious advantages over the colonists. They had the strongest, best trained navy in the world, and an experienced, professional army. They had the wealth of a vast global empire, and they also had a much larger population than the Americans. How would having a large population during wartime help a nation?
2. Explain a few of the reasons why a colonist would choose to remain loyal to Britain.
3. Explain some of the challenges faced by the American revolutionaries at the start of the war.
4. Describe how people from overseas, like the Marqui de Lafayette, helped the Patriot cause.
5. How did the Americans fight the British at sea and try to get around the British naval blockade?
6. How did the use of guerrilla warfare help the Americans in the war against the British?
7. How did Washington use trickery and secrecy to his advantage throughout the war? Give some specific examples, like the secrecy of the attack on Yorktown, to support your answer.
8. What were some immediate challenges faced by the new nation after the war?

Chapter 7: A More Perfect Union

1. How did the national government's lack of power to regulate foreign trade hurt the U.S.?
2. What were the major complaints of the Anti-Federalists during the fight for ratification of the Constitution?
3. How did the weakness of the national government under the Articles of Confederation contribute to the writing of the Constitution?
4. Describe the economic problems in the U.S. that led to Shays' Rebellion.
5. Describe the provisions in the Northwest Ordinance.
6. Draw a chart that compares the New Jersey Plan with the Virginia Plan, and shows how the Great Compromise blended the two.
7. Explain how the ideas of John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu contributed to the ideas found in the Constitution.
8. Explain how the Constitution incorporates the concepts of federalism, separation of powers, and checks and balances into the federal government.

Chapter 8: Constitution and Government

1. Harry Potter says he wants to be the president of the United States one day. How old does Harry Potter have to be before he can become president?
2. If Harry Potter was elected president, how many terms of office would he be allowed to serve?
3. Princess Leia wants to be a U.S. Senator when she gets older. If she gets elected, how long would her term of office be before she has to run for re-election?
4. Ron Weasley just got elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. How many times would Ron be allowed to get re-elected?
5. President Granger receives a bill on her desk calling for a 20% decrease in the amount of fossil fuels that are burned in the U.S. over the next ten years. She likes some parts of the bill, but not others. What are her options with regard to the bill?
6. President Granger has just vetoed a bill requiring women to register with the selective service (the draft) when they are eighteen. Many members of Congress disagree with her, and believe this is an important piece of legislation. What may Congress attempt to do to pass this bill anyway?
7. Congress passes a law banning the private ownership of handguns in the U.S., but within a year the U.S. Supreme Court declares the law unconstitutional because it violates the 2nd Amendment. What is Congress' only option if they wish to keep this law?
8. Which clause, found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, allows the Congress to have certain implied powers?
9. Which clause, found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, allows the Congress to regulate all sorts of things such as the airline industry and radio and television broadcasting?
10. How many voting members does the House of Representatives have?
11. Which of the presidential duties, or roles, gives the president ultimate authority over the armed forces?
12. What are the three levels of the federal court system?
13. What are three duties of a U.S. citizen?
14. All tax and spending bills must originate in which house of Congress?
15. How many Senators does the U.S. Senate currently have?
16. How many Supreme Court justices are there?
17. Which Supreme Court decision gave the Court the power of judicial review?
18. Which house of Congress has the power to impeach federal officials?
19. Why is it is duty of U.S. citizens to vote?
20. Bob "The Tough Guy" Timmons is walking down the street at a local fireworks display. There are large crowds gathered and many people are in the middle of the road. A police officer politely asks a number of people to step on the sidewalk to allow a vehicle to pass. Bob refuses, and ignores the police officer. What responsibility of being a citizen is Bob ignoring?
21.Jim hears that the local city government is planning to cut down fifteen oak trees on the street where he lives. The trees are supposedly in the way of some street lights the city wants to put in. Jim loves the trees and decides to organize a demonstration outside of city hall to try to convince the government not to cut down the trees. A small group of about 35 local residents gather to protest with Jim. What right are the residents exercising? What amendment of the Constitution protects this right?
22. Bob the Shepherd, head of the nationwide biotechnology company GoatTech, was recently indicted by a federal grand jury on charges that he embezzled, or stole, money from the company bank accounts to purchase a private ranch in the hills of Montana. Mr. Shepherd went to trial before a federal district court, but his attorneys were unhappy with the court's decision, saying that the trial was unfair and that Bob's constitutional rights had been violated. Describe the process by which Bob's case could end up before the U.S. Supreme Court.
23. A few months ago Senator Bubba McStinky proposed a law in the U.S. Senate that would require the federal government to provide grant money to college students seeking a degree in fashion design. Congresswoman Bella Velvetpants has already said she would support such a bill in the House. Describe the process by which this bill would make its way to the President's desk to be signed into law. Start with Senator McStinky's proposal in the Senate. You may create a chart if you wish.

Chapter 9: The Federalist Era

1. List the three main pieces of advice that President Washington gave to the nation in his farewell address. Do you believe Washington was correct in his advice? Why or why not?
2. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson disagreed on almost everything. List three specific topics on which Hamilton and Jefferson did not agree.
3. What did Spain agree to do in Pinckney's Treaty? How did this help the U.S.?
4. Why many did small farmer's disagree with the Whiskey Tax passed by Congress in 1791?
5. How did political parties play a major role in the 1796 election?
6. What do you think is Alexander Hamilton's biggest influence on the U.S. government today? Use examples to support your answer.
7. Explain what a loose construction of the Constitution is. What are some advantages of such a point of view?
8. Draw a chart the compares and contrasts the ideas of the Federalists with the ideas of the Democratic-Republicans.
9. Do you believe Adams was right to sign the Alien and Sedition Acts into law? Why or why not?

Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era

1. During his inaugural speech Jefferson expressed his views on the rule of the majority. He said, "Though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail [win],...the minority posses their rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate [these rights] would be oppression." What did President Jefferson mean by this?
2. When Jefferson won the presidency in 1800, the Democratic-Republicans also won control of Congress. He reassured the remaining Federalists in the government by saying, "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.... Let us, then, with courage and confidence pursue our...attachment to union and representative government." What does Jefferson mean here?
3. Why would President Jefferson order Secretary of State James Madison to withhold the commissions of the "midnight judges" appointed by President John Adams?
4. Describe the principle of judicial review established by the Supreme Court's ruling in Marbury v. Madison.
5. When the U.S. learned that France had regained ownership of Louisiana, Jefferson said of New Orleans, "There is on the globe one single spot, the possessor of which is our natural and habitual enemy. It is New Orleans, through which the produce of three-eighths of our territory must pass to market." What point is he making with these words?
6. Even though he thought it was a great opportunity, President Jefferson was concerned about whether or not he was allowed to buy Louisiana from France. Why?
7. In 1803, after the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson got Congress to pay for an expedition to explore the new lands that now belonged to the U.S. Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis to lead the expedition. Jefferson described Lewis, a former army captain, as being, "brave, prudent [careful], habituated [used] to the woods, and familiar with Indian manners and character." Why would Jefferson want someone with these qualities leading the expedition west?
8. Why would the U.S. Navy destroy its own ship, the USS Philadelphia, after it was captured by Tripoli?
9. What excuse did the British use for impressing thousands of American merchant sailors into military service in the early 1800's?
10. How were Britain and France violating U.S. neutrality in the early 1800's?
11. In 1807 Congress passed the Embargo Act. What affect did this law have on Jefferson's popularity and why?
12. Which battle (and also happened to be the greatest American victory in the War of 1812) took place two weeks after the war was officially over? Why did the battle occur after the war was ended?
13. What treaty officially ended the War of 1812, and what problems did it solve?

Chapter 11: Growth and Expansion

1. Describe the economic effects of the Industrial Revolution and advances in transportation in the U.S. in the early 1800s. Use specific examples to support your answer.
2. What factors determined where people would settle as they moved westward?
3. Why would sectionalism, as well as Southern support for states' rights over a strong federal government threaten the Union? (I,V)
4. How did the Missouri Compromise maintain the balance of power in the U.S. Senate? (I)
5. Describe the effects of the Missouri Compromise.
6. How did the Monroe Doctrine represent a major change in U.S. foreign policy?

Chapter 12: The Jackson Era

1. Many historians call the expansion of American democracy in the 1820's and 1830's "Jacksonian Democracy." What were some things that happened during Jackson's administration that made the American political system more democratic? Explain.
2. Explain why South Carolina passed the Nullification Act. Why would Southern support for states' rights and nullification over a strong federal government threaten the Union?
3. Why do you think President Jackson and members of Congress supported the Indian Removal Act?
4. In Worchester v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled that because the Cherokee Nation was "...a distinct community, occupying its own territory..." only the federal government, not the states, had authority over the Cherokee. However, President Jackson refused to enforce the ruling and allowed Georgia to remove the Cherokee anyway. How could Jackson’s actions be seen as harmful to the Union?
5. Explain some of the causes of the Panic of 1837.
6. After the death of the Bank of the United States, what did President Van Buren do with government funds? How might this prevent future bank crises?
7. What was, most likely, the cause of the decline of the Whig Party after the death of poor President Harrison?

Chapter 14: North and South

1. Describe and explain two main factors that contributed to urbanization in the early and mid-1800s. (Remember immigration came a bit later).
2. Describe three effects of the Industrial Revolution.
3. What did mass production of goods and the Transportation Revolution cause to happen to the prices of many goods in the U.S.? What did this do for the U.S. economy?
4. Why do historians use the word "revolution" to describe changes in industry and transportation during the period from 1790 to 1860?
5. How did Eli Whitney's cotton gin, at least indirectly, contribute to the rebirth of slavery in the South in the 1800's?
6. In the late 1700's the prices of cash crops like tobacco, rice, and indigo dropped. Using the concept of supply and demand to explain, how did this contribute to the drop in prices for slaves?
7. By 1860 only a small percentage of Southerners owned slaves, and a very small portion of that number owned fifty or more slaves. Why was it that these people had such a powerful influence in the South?
8. Describe the social order of Southern society in the early to mid 1800's.
9. Many slaves worked to maintain their ties to one another and to their heritage. What was the most important part (or unit) of slave communities?
10. Neil Buie, who was born in 1801, was a member of a large slave owning family. He died in 1861 in Copiah County, Mississippi. According to the 1860 Copiah County Slave Schedule, which was an inventory of all the slaves in that county, Mr. Buie owned 76 slaves. One slave, named Littleton, was valued in the schedule at $1800, which would be about $40,000 in 2005 dollars. Mr. Buie owned several more slaves valued at $850 each, which would be about $19,000 per slave in 2005 dollars. Two other men, Jack and Israel, were valued at $1450 and $1500 respectively in 1860 dollars. Using these dollar values as a clue, why would someone like Mr. Buie be motivated to fight to keep slavery legal?

11. Use the chart below to answer the question that follows.

Type of Transporation Average Speed Shipping Costs
Roads 2 miles per hour $0.12 per ton per mile
Canals 1.5 - 5 miles per hour $0.05 per ton per mile
Steamboats About 20 miles per hour $0.01 per ton per mile
Railroads About 20 miles per hour (including stops) $0.06 per ton per mile

Which shipping method above appears to be the most efficient and cost effective? Before the Transportation Revolution which method would have been the most cost effective? (Cost effective means getting the most for your money). (IV, VI)

12. Describe the causes of Irish and German immigration to the United States in the mid-1800s.
13. Describe the effects of immigration to the U.S. in the mid-1800's and the reaction of nativists to immigrants.
14. Explain the barriers to industrial growth in the South during the first half of the 19th century.

Chapter 16: Toward Civil War

1. Describe how each of the following items contributed to secession and the Civil War:
  • The Fugitive Slave Act
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • The Dred Scott Decision
  • John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry
  • The Southern view on states' rights
2. Briefly list and explain the five parts of the Compromise of 1850.
3. What was the significance of the Wilmot Proviso?
4. What was Abraham Lincoln's position on the issue of slavery?
5. Much of Abraham Lincoln's Inaugural Address in 1860 was directed to the South. In his speech he said:
In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it." (Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, Monday, March 4, 1861)
What is Lincoln saying to the Southern states that had seceded from the Union with these words?

Chapter 17: The Civil War

1. Create a chart that shows the stengths and weaknesses of both the North and South at the beginning of the Civil War.
2. Explain some of the social, political, and economic changes that resulted from the Civil War.
3. Create a chart or diagram that lists the effects of the Civil War as either positive or negative.
4. How did the uneven distribution of productive resources (such as factories, raw materials, transportation, etc.) influence the outcome of the Civil War?
5. What challenges lay ahead for the U.S. at the end of the war?
6. Which Union General that we discussed was the most effective? Why?
7. What was the advantage of gaining control of the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers for the Union?
8. What was the goal of Sherman's March to the Sea?
9. Describe the economic effects of the war on both the North and the South.
10. How did both President Lincoln and Jefferson Davis deal with opponents of the war? Why were their actions cause for concern?
11. If one were to pick a single cause of the Civil War, many historians would pick slavery. Explain how slavery can be seen as the primary cause of the Civil War.
12. Describe the Union's three part plan to win the war.
13. What was the Southern strategy for winning indpendence?
14. List the states that were members of the Confederacy in 1865.

Sample Test Questions for World History (7th Grade)

World History Chapter 1: What is History?

1.The Gregorian calendar is used by most of the world. Why is it important for the world to have a common calendar that we all use?
2.Imagine that an archaeologist in the year A.D. 3575 discovers the remains of the place where you currently live. Think of two "artifacts" that might be uncovered from your room. Describe what they are and explain what could be learned about you and the world you live in through the examination of this evidence.
3. Why do historians often draw different conclusions about events of the past? Give at least one example from the reading or class.
4. What are some things a historian should do when using a primary source? Think about how a historian might check for reliability and how the source is used.
5. Predict what might happen if, beginning next year, Americans stopped studying history in school.

World History Chapter 2: Geography, Economics, and Government

1. Why do maps and globes show the Earth in different ways?
2. How are the Equator and Prime Meridian related to latitude and longitude?
3. What are an advantage and a disadvantage to using a map rather than a globe to study the Earth's geography?
4. Which Essential Elements of Geography might be involved in the study of an area's landforms and how they affect people living there?
5. Why is reading the map key important when looking at a special-purpose map?
6. Why are geographers interested in contact between cultures?

7. What are the three main questions that economists ask?
8. What is supply? What is demand?
9. Why do buyers pay a high price for something that is scarce?
10. Think of something you chose to buy or do recently. Write down its opportunity cost, or what you gave up when you made your choice.
11. How are traditional and command economies different from each other?
12. In which type of economic system are all decisions made by a central government? Give an example.
13. Why do countries agree to trade with one another? Give an example.

14. List each branch of the federal government and one of its key powers.
15. How do separation of powers and checks and balances limit the power of government? Give an example.
16. What type of government does the United States have? Why?
17. Why is being a responsible citizen important?
18. What duties do citizens have? Pick one and explain why it is important.
19. What are some ways in which you could become a better global citizen?

Economics

These may be on a chapter test (like Chapter 2), or they may be given on a stand-alone assessment.
1. What are goods and services?
2. Give an example of a basic business or industry and explain why it is a basic business.
3. In the Kingdom of Gondor, many people grow food and sell or trade what they do not need for other goods and services. Some people are craftsmen or merchants, and sell their products or services to make a living. The government of Gondor provides the people with protection from orcs and goblins in exchange for some taxes, but does not interfere too much with how people conduct their business. What kind of economic system does Gondor have? How do you know?
4. In the land of Mordor, across the river from Gondor, Lord Sauron rules all. He controls what his orcs do, where they work, and how much they produce. His government decides how any money or wealth gets distributed throughout the land. What kind of economic system does Mordor have? How do you know?
5. The manufacturers of Super Happy Fun Balls are having a tough time. They can't keep up with demand because Super Happy Fun Balls are the most popular item for the upcoming Christmas season. What could the makers of the Super Happy Fun Ball do to the price to help lower demand a bit? Draw a graph to illustrate your answer.
6. The makers of Jim's Super Chew Juicy Beef Jerky have found that they can charge a great deal of money for even one stick of Jim's famous recipe jerky. What are the makers of Jim's Super Chew Juicy Beef Jerky likely to do with their production of the jerky? Why?
7. What are wants (in economics)?
8. Bubba makes pizza, and he's good at it. After opening his new pizza shop, Bubba finds that if he charges $20 for a large pizza, he only sells an average of 20 pizzas a night. After Bubba drops the price a bit, to $15 a pizza, he notices that he sells an average of 40 pizzas a night. Finally, he discovers that at $10 a pizza, he can sell 80 pizzas a night. Using the chart below, draw a demand curve that represents Bubba’s discoveries. Make sure to label the graph properly.

World History Chapter 3: The Ancient Greeks

1. How did the geography of Greece influence its development? Think about what people did for a living, where they ended up living, and how Greece developed politically. Use examples to support your answer.
2. By about 750 B.C. many Greeks were producing a surplus of food. What were two benefits of having a surplus of food? Give examples to support your answer.
3. How can the use of coins as money help trade?
4. Compare the governments of Athens and Sparta.
5. Compare and contrast the economic development of Athens and Sparta.
6. Your name is Barticus Rumblepants. You are a Spartan man living in the year 500 B.C. Describe your life and responsibilities as Spartan.
7. Your name is Vinagrette Rumblepants, and you are a Spartan woman married to a warrior. Describe your life, rights, and responsibilities.
8. The Persian Wars lasted from 499-449 B.C. How were the Greeks able to use geography to defeat the larger Persian forces? Use examples to support your answer.
9. Read the quote and answer the question that follows.

"They [the Spartans] defended themselves to the last, those who still had swords using them, and the others resisting with their hands and teeth; till the barbarians [Persians], who in part ... had gone round and now encircled them upon every side, overwhelmed and buried the remnant [remainder] which was left beneath showers of missile weapons." - from The Histories by Herodotus

What can we learn about the Spartan warriors from this passage?

10. How did the Peloponnesian War affect the Greek city-states? Use examples to support your answer.
11. Your name is Rigorous Momenticus, and you are the leader of a great and large Greek city-state. You want to bring greater freedom to your city-state, and make the government more democratic. Would you rather have your new government be a direct democracy or a representative democracy? Explain your answer.

World History Chapter 4: Greek Civilization

1. Why do you think the ancient Greek gods could control nature (like the wind, rain, and seas)?
2. An epic is long poem that tells the story of a hero's great adventure. Two excellent examples of epics are Homer's The Iliad and The Odyssey. Name a modern day movie, novel, or video game that draws on the same themes or elements in one of Homer's epics, and explain why you chose it.
3. Why did many Greek philosophers disapprove of the Sophists?
4. Why was Socrates found guilty of treason? Do think this was a just decision? Why?
5. Explain why Plato divided his Republic into three groups. Be sure to mention what those groups were and how Plato viewed Athenian democracy.
6. How did Aristotle's ideas about government influence the authors of the U.S. Constitution?
7. Explain the three ways Philip II was able to conquer and unite the Greek city-states.
8. Why do you think Alexander chose to follow in his father's footsteps and conquer Persia?
9. What was one lasting effect of Alexander's achievments?
10. Which Greek thinker or scientist that we discussed do you think is the most influential? Explain your answer.
11. Think about the qualities that made Alexander such a great leader. What can leaders today learn from Alexander's example?

World History Chapter 5: Rome - Republic to Empire

1. Create a chart or diagram that deomstrates the organization of the government of the Roman republic. Be sure to include all the legislative and advisory bodies that we discussed.
2. Why were early Romans so concerned about one person in government having too much power?

For each set of three ideas, people, or events from the chapter below, explain how they relate to eachother. Use specific details to support your answers.
3. poor farmers, professional army, Sulla
4. Tiber River, mountains, location of Rome
5. triumvirate, Julius Caesar, Rise of the Empire

6. Describe some of the reforms that Caesar Augustus made as emperor.
7. How did the Roman Empire's roads contribute to its success?
8. How might the use of slaves in the Roman republic and empire be economically beneficial? How would the use of slaves hurt Rome economically?
9. Briefly explain the causes and effects of each of the Punic Wars.

World History Chapter 6: Roman Civilization

1. What do you think are the two or three most important contributions of the Roman Empire to our world today? Why?
2. You are a wealthy woman living the city of Rome in the year A.D. 55. Describe your life and the rights that you have.
3. Discuss some of the positive and negative effects of slavery in the Roman Empire.
4. What are the three main reasons for the decline of the Roman Empire. Give at least one example of each.
5. Explain how Germanic invaders helped to weaken the Roman Empire.
6. Why was Constantine an important ruler in Roman history?
7. What were some of the ways the Roman Empire helped the spread of Christianity?
8. How did inflation help to weaken the Roman Empire? Be sure to explain what inflation is.
9. Why was Constantinople an excellent spot for trade?

World History Chapter 8: Islamic Civilization

1. Imagine you are a merchant and trader living in a town along a trade route in Arabia in the year 571. Describe your daily life and surroundings.
2. You are a nomad in Arabia in the year 573. Explain the importance of your herd of sheep, goats, and camels.
3. Your name is Ahmad. You are a wealthy merchant living in Mecca in the year 614. You do not like the new teachings of this Muhammad person. Explain two reasons why you do not agree with the teachings of this new religion, Islam.
4. What are two sources of guidance and Islamic beliefs for Muslims that we talked about.
5. List and briefly explain the Five Pillars of Islam.
6. Describe two major ways that the religion of Islam spread throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. Be sure to give examples of each.
7. Using our look at the Islamic world as a starting point, describe some of the benefits of long-distance trade.
8. Which of the Five Pillars of Islam do you think would be the most difficult to follow? Why?
9. Which do you think was more effective at spreading Islam, trade or conquest? Why?
10. What was the most important contribution of Muslim scholars to the world? Why?
11. In your opinion, which of the three Muslim empires that we learned about was the greatest? Why? Give examples.

World History Chapter 9: African Civilizations

1.How did trade develop in Africa?
2. Why did West African trading empires rise and fall?
3. How did African rulers govern their territories?
4. How did traditional religions influence African life?
5. How did Islam spread in Africa?
6. Why do people in different parts of Africa have similar traditions and cultures?
7. How did the slave trade affect Africans?
8. Describe the geography of Africa.

World History Chapter 13: Medieval Europe

1. Explain how rivers and mountains played an important role in the growth and development of Europe.
2. Explain how Charlemagne affected the lives of people in Europe.
3. Draw and label a diagram that explains how feudalism worked in medieval Europe.
4. You are Bernard Greenfingers, a freeman living on the manor of Sir Tightstockings. Describe your life and the life of other peasants on a manor in the middle ages.
5. How did improvements in farming, beginning in the early 11th centruy, affect the lives of people in Europe?
6. You are Tom Brittlelegs, a merchant living in the town of Kersey. Describe the daily life of people in your town. How were towns important centers of trade?
7. Describe the major effects of the Crusades on Europe. Predict the long-term effects of the Crusades.
8. Describe the importance of the Church in medieval Europe. Think of how if affected the daily lives of people, the economy, and how Europe was ruled.

World History Chapter 14: Renaissance and Reformation

1. Explain how increased trade between Europe and Asia contributed to the Italian Renaissance.
2. Bob is an Italian silk and spice merchant in the late 1400s. As Bob gains access to more of these precious items and prices of these goods drop, what is likely to happen to Bob's spice and silk trade? Why?
3. Explain how the three ideas, people, or events that follow are related to each other:
a) Martin Luther
b) the printing press and/or movable type
c) The Reformation
4. Use the excerpts from Machiavelli's The Prince to answer the question that follows.
"A controversy has arisen about this: whether it is better to be loved than feared, or vise versa. My view is that it is desirable to be both loved and feared; but it is difficult to achieve both and, if one of them has to be lacking, it is much safer to be feared than loved. ... For of men it may generally be affirmed, that they are thankless, fickle, false studious to avoid danger, greedy of gain, devoted to you while you are able to confer benefits upon them, and ready, as I said before, while danger is distant, to shed their blood, and sacrifice their property, their lives, and their children for you; but in the hour of need they turn against you."

What did Machiavelli think about people in general?

5. What two important roles did Italian city-states play in the economic development of Italy and Europe? Give examples.
6. The Black Death actually had some positive effects on the lives of people in Europe. What were some of these effects and why were they good things?
7. How did the Mongols contribute to the increase of trade between Europe and Asia?
8. Who do you think is the most important Renaissance thinker, artist, or writer? Why?

Sample Test Questions for 8th Grade Religion - Creed

Creed Chapter 1

1. Explain the difference between polytheism and monotheism.
2. Why do we believe that the desire for God is written in every human heart?
3. What are the Five Pillars of Islam?
4. Why were the gods of the ancient Greeks and Egyptians often related to the force of nature?
5. Choose one of the religions we discussed in class. Use examples to demonstrate how followers of this religion are or were searching for a relationship with God.
6. You are a farmer in ancient Egypt in 1800 B.C. During the planting season you try to pray to Ra, the sun god, almost every day. Why?
7. Read the quote, then answer the question that follows. "In many ways, throughout history down to the present day, men have given expression to their quest for God in their religious beliefs and behaviour: in their prayers, sacrifices, rituals, meditations, and so forth." (Catechism of the Catholic Church #28)

Give an example from one of the religions we discussed that supports this statement.

8. Read the quote, then answer the question that follows. "The desire for God is written in the human heart, because man is created by God and for God; and God never ceases to draw man to himself. Only in God will he find the truth and happiness he never stops searching for..." (Catechism of the Catholic Church #27)

According to the passage above, what is the only way we can find truth and happiness?

Creed Chapter 2

1. List the four features of Divine Revelation that we discussed.
2. With whom did Divine Revelation begin and with whom did it reach its pinnacle or high point?
3. Why is Scripture alone not enough to reveal all that we need to know about God and Jesus Christ?
4. What is the deposit of faith and how does the Church guard it?

Creed Chapter 3

1. What is an atheist? How can someone who might claim to be faithful still live an atheistic life?
2. What are the differences between opinion, knowledge, and faith/belief.
3. What are the two kinds of faith? How are they different?
4. What is Grace? What does it do for us?
5. What are the five qualities of faith? Explain each of them.
6. What is an agnostic? What do many agnostics feel they need in order to believe in God?
7. What is Jesus telling us when he said: "...Amen, I say to you, if you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, 'Move from here to there,' and it will move. Nothing will be impossible for you." (Matthew 7:20)
8. St. Paul wrote: "For by grace you have been saved through faith, and this is not from you; it is the gift of God; it is not from works, so no one may boast." (Ephesians 2:8-9) What is Saint Paul telling us about grace in these verses?

Creed Chapter 4

1. Briefly explain the Great Designer argument for God.
2. What is the basis of our knowledge about God and our faith in God?
3. What is the significance of God revealing His name to us? Why is that important?
4. What is the real message of the creation stories in Genesis?
5. What are the four main attributes of God?
6. How can the image below be used to help us understand the eternal and omniscient attributes of God?

Eternal God

7. Explain what the following verse from Wisdom 13:5 is telling us. Which argument for God does this sounds like? "For from the greatness and the beauty of created things their original author, by analogy, is seen."
8. Why is St. Paul scolding the pagans and faithless in the following passage?

"For what can be known about God is evident to them, because God made it evident to them. Ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes of eternal power and divinity have been able to be understood and perceived in what he has made. As a result, they have no excuse; for although they knew God they did not accord him glory as God or give him thanks." (Romans 1:19-21)

Creed Chapter 5

1. What do we mean when we say the three Persons in one God are distinct from one another?
2. Are angels like God or like human beings? Explain.
3. What do we mean when we say God is holy?
4. What is God’s immanence?
5. What sets Christianity apart from other religions?

Creed Chapter 6

1. What is the human soul?
2. When we talk about the evolution of the human race, to what are we referring?
3. What is original sin?
4. Explain the human inclination to evil that is an effect of original sin.
5. Despite the weakening of human nature by original sin, we have a promise of hope. What is that promise?

Creed Chapter 7

1. What are two non-biblical sources that we can use to verify and support the existence of Jesus?
2. What is the mystery of the Incarnation?
3. On what part of Jesus’ life do the gospels focus?
4. What sort of person was Jesus?
5. To what religious group did Jesus belong?
6. Approximately how old was Jesus when he began his ministry, and what event marks that beginning?
7. What does the following passage, from Mt 9:9-12, say about Jesus the person?
(9) As Jesus passed on from there, he saw a man named Matthew sitting at the customs post. He said to him, "Follow me." And he got up and followed him. (10) While he was at table in his house, many tax collectors and sinners came and sat with Jesus and his disciples. (11) The Pharisees saw this and said to his disciples, "Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners?" (12) He heard this and said, "Those who are well do not need a physician, but the sick do.

Creed Chapter 8

1. Why was Jesus called the Messiah?
2. Why is Jesus called our savior?
3. Miracles can lead a person to believe, but they cannot produce faith. Why?
4. What saved all people from sin and sealed the new, everlasting covenant with humanity and why?
5. What is the most important reason for our faith in Christ?
6. Make a chart that compares and contrasts the Passover Lamb with Jesus, the Lamb of God.
7. Compare and contrast the Mt. Sinai Covenant with the New Covenant.
8. What is St. Paul telling us when he writes, "For if the dead are not raised, neither has Christ been raised, and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is vain; you are still in your sins"? (1 Cor 15:16-17)

Creed Chapter 9: The Good News of Jesus Christ

1. What qualities did the apostles have that help make the gospel message believable?
2. What is God's providence?
3. Why doesn't God just give us everything we ask for?
4. What is the Kingdom of God?
5. What three important truths did Jesus stress on the night before he died?
6. Read the scripture passage below, then answer the question that follows.

"Are not five sparrows sold for two small coins? Yet not one of them has escaped the notice of God. Even the hairs of your head have all been counted. Do not be afraid. You are worth more than many sparrows." (Luke 12:6-7)

How do Jesus' words in the passage above demonstrate God's providence?

7.Read the scripture passage below, then answer the question that follows.

"If God so clothes the grass of the field, which grows today and is thrown into the oven tomorrow, will he not much more provide for you, O you of little faith? So do not worry and say, 'What are we to eat?' or 'What are we to drink?' or 'What are we to wear?' All these things the pagans seek. Your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. But seek first the kingdom (of God) and his righteousness, and all these things will be given you besides. Do not worry about tomorrow; tomorrow will take care of itself." (Matthew 6:31-34)
What is Jesus telling us with these words? What are we supposed to be concerned with?

Creed Chapter 10 Test: The Lord and Giver of Life

1. Why do we call the Holy Spirit the Giver of Life?
2. Why do we call the Holy Spirit Advocate, or Paraclete?
3. How did the Holy Spirit help the disciples at Pentecost?
4. How are Confirmation and Baptism related?
5. What will the Holy Spirit do for you at Confirmation?
6. What are the seven Gifts of the Holy spirit? What do they do for us?
7. What are the fruits of the Holy Spirit?
8. What are actual graces?
9. Give some examples of how the Holy Spirit was present or mentioned in the life of Jesus.
10. What are some titles of the Holy Spirit?
11. What are some symbols of the Holy Spirit?
12. Describe the role of the Holy Spirit in the book of Genesis.

Creed Chapter 11 Test: The Mystery of the Church

1. Explain how the Church is made up of the people of God.
2. What do we mean when we say the Church is the Body of Christ?
3. The Church is made up of two dimensions. Explain what these dimensions are, and how these two parts make up the Church.
4. What are the four marks of the Church, and what does each mean?

Creed Chapter 12 Test: The Church of Jesus Christ

1. Draw a chart that illustrates the roots of Church leadership.
2. Explain apostolic succession.
3. Who is the successor of Saint Peter?
4. Pick two visible elements of the Church and explain each of them.
5. What is ecumenism?
6. What are the main duties, or roles, of bishops in the Church?

Creed Chapter 13 Test Catholicism: A Way of Life

1. Compare and contrast a contemplative vs. an active religious community.
2. Why would a religious person make a vow of poverty?
3. What is the importance of the Laity in the Church?
4. List at least three things the 22 different Catholic Churches have in common with each other.
5. What is the magisterium?
6. How does modern American culture make it difficult to live your Catholic faith? How can living your Catholic faith be seen as counter-cultural?

Creed Chapter 14 Test: The Church on Its Way

1. What is Jesus' second coming? When will he arrive? What is another name for the second coming?
2. What is heaven?
3. What is the particular judgment?
4. What is the Immaculate Conception?
5. What is the communion of saints?

Sample Test Questions for 8th Grade Religion - Catholic Faith Handbook

Catholic Faith Handbook Chapter 12: The Holy Spirit

Note: See also questions from Chapter 10 of the Creed book.
1. How did the Holy Spirit help the disciples at Pentecost?
2. What are the seven Gifts of the Holy spirit? What do they do for us?
3. What are the fruits of the Holy Spirit?
4. Give some examples of how the Holy Spirit was present or mentioned in the life of Jesus.
5. What are some titles of the Holy Spirit?
6. What are some symbols of the Holy Spirit?
7. Describe the role of the Holy Spirit in the book of Genesis.

Catholic Faith Handbook Chapter 16: Introduction to the Liturgy

(p.134-138)
1. Is modern technology bad? Why or why not?
2. Define liturgy. What are its three components?
3. What is the central liturgy of the Catholic Church?
4. Why is our participation in the liturgy important?
5. Define liturgical celebration or ritual.
6. How is God the Father involved in the liturgy?
7. How is Jesus Christ involved in the liturgy?
8. What does a Sacrament do for us?
9. How is the Holy Spirit involved in the Liturgy?

(p.138-142)
1. What is the Liturgical year?
2. Explain Advent.
3. Explain Christmas.
4. What is Ordinary Time?
5. What is Lent?
6. Explain Holy Week.
7. What is the Easter season?

(p.142-144)
1. What do we call the different liturgical traditions of the Catholic Church?
2. How are all the different Catholic liturgical rites still universal?
3. What are some reasons that a liturgy might be "boring" or unfulfilling?
4. When we celebrate a liturgy, what are we remembering?

Catholic Faith Handbook Chapter 17: Introduction to the Sacraments

1. Define symbol and ritual.
2. What is the difference between a sign and a symbol?
3. What are Covenant Symbols? Give two examples.
4. What are nature symbols? Give two examples.
5. Rewrite this definition in your own words. Be sure to explain efficacious, grace, and disposition in your definition.
"The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions." (Catechism 1131)
6. Why are there seven Sacraments?
7. What is the essential Sacramental symbol in each of the Seven Sacraments?
8. What are sacramentals? Give two examples.
9. What are blessings?

Catholic Faith Handbook Chapter 18: Baptism

1. What are the Sacraments of Initiation?
2.What do we receive in all three Sacraments of Initiation?
3. What are some stories of water in the Old Testament?
4. What are some examples of baptism in the New Testament?
5. Who are catechumens?
6. List and explain the four major effects of the grace that we receive at baptism. Which one is the most significant in that it imparts a sacramental character?
7. Why is baptism necessary for salvation?
8. Who is the normal minister for baptism?

Catholic Faith Handbook Chapter 23: Introduction to Christian Morality

1. What is morality?
2. Where can we look for guidance on moral questions?
3. We are made in God's image. What is the primary effect of this?
4. What did Jesus give us to help us understand what kind of people we are supposed to be?
5. Explain the gift of free will.
6. Explain the three elements that determine the morality of any human act.
7. List the Seven Deadly Sins. Explain each.
8. What is a mortal sin?
9. What is a venial sin?
10. What are virtues?
11. What are vices?

Catholic Faith Handbook Chapter 25: Sources of Moral Truth

1. You and your best friend are alone in your classroom. You witness your friend reach into the teacher's desk and steal $100 in cash. The money had been collected by your class to donate to a local charity. Later that day your teacher addresses the class and asks for anyone who knows anything about the missing money to come forward. You realize what your friend did is wrong, but if you tell the teacher what you know your friend could be expelled, get into trouble with his or her parents, or even get in trouble with the police. You are unsure of what to do. Explain how you might use each source of moral truth that we have discussed to help you make your choice.
2. What is natural law? How did Thomas Aquinas describe it? What is a good example of natural law?
3. What is difference between Old Law and New Law?
4. What is the major difference between the Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount?
5. List the Precepts of the Church.
6. List and explain at least four ways we can form our conscience.
7. Saint Thomas Aquinas described natural law this way: "The natural law is nothing other than the light of understanding placed in us by God; through it we know what we must do and what we must avoid. God has given this light or law at the creation." (CCC 1955)

Using this description as a guide, explain how natural law is different from our conscience.

8. Saint Augustine wrote: "God wrote on the tables of the Law what men did not read in their hearts." (CCC 1962)

Which source of moral truth is St. Augustine talking about? How do you know?

9. Saint Augustine has written: "If anyone should meditate with devotion and perspicacity on the sermon our Lord gave on the mount, as we read in the Gospel of Saint Matthew, he will doubtless find there . . . the perfect way of the Christian life. . . . This sermon contains . . . all the precepts needed to shape one's life." (CCC 1966)

Which source of moral truth is he talking about here? How do you know?

Catholic Faith Handbook Chapter 28: Respecting Life

1. What truth is the foundation for moral teaching, for loving others, God, and ourselves?
2. Explain the principle of legitimate defense.
3. What is the Church's teaching about capital punishment?
4. What is the just war doctrine? Make sure to list the seven criteria that must be met for a war to be considered just.
5. According to what we have learned, why is abortion considered to be a grave sin?
6. What is scandal?
7. How is respecting our own bodies part of the Fifth Commandment?

Sample Test Questions for 8th Grade Religion - Church History

Church History Chapter 2:The Early Church

1. List the six factors that contributed to the rapid growth of the Church during its first 300 years.
2. Why was the Pax Romana so helpful for the spreading of the gospel message to the world?
3. Give two reasons why the Romans persecuted the early Christians?
4. What major decision was reached at the Council of Jerusalem?
5. List three tools the early Church fathers used to combat the influence of the Gnostics.

Church History Chapter 3: Faith of an Empire

1. Why is the year 313 considered a turning point in the history of the Church?
2. What did emperor Theodosius I do to help the spread of Christianity in 380?
3. List three things Constantine and his successors did that showed favor to the Church in the fourth and fifth centuries.
4. Caesaropapism means literally “caesar is pope.” What situation does this term describe?
5. Who are the Fathers of the Church? What did they do?

Church History Chapter 4 Test: New Beginnings

1. What were the causes of the Schism of 1054?
2. Describe some of the good things accomplished by monasteries in the 7th-9th centuries.

Sample Test Questions for Geography

Note: These questions are from a course I taught a number of years ago, from 2001-2009. Feel free to use or borrow them as you see fit. If you are one of my current students, you're in the wrong place.

Chapter 1: The Tools of Geography

The Five Themes of Geography
Directions: For each example below, indicate which of the Five Themes it best describes.
1. Kelly visited the Outer Banks in North Carolina this summer. She noticed the climate was warm and sunny, with pleasant ocean breezes. The sand was white and soft. Kelly also thought it was interesting that all of the houses were built on stilts in case of flooding caused by a hurricane. Of which theme is this an example?
2. Austin, a super rich and powerful business man, decides to build a mall surrounded by luxury apartments and offices in a large field that was once a forest with a stream running through it. To build his mall Austin’s company has to cut down hundreds of trees, but he decides to leave a small park at the center of the mall, and to protect the stream from harm by building bridges over it for traffic and pedestrians. Of which theme is this an example?
3. Alison takes a trip through the deep South. On her trip she notices that most people who live there speak with a Southern accent, like interesting foods that most people up North don’t eat, and everyone seems to call her a Yankee. Of which theme is this an example?
4. Calvin is visiting his friend Bubba at his secret hideout which is hidden deep underground at 40°N 84°W. Of course, now that you know this, you must be eliminated. Of which theme is this an example?
5. Maggie, who has become an internationally recognized expert in the area of chewing gum, flies all over the world sharing her knowledge with chewing gum manufacturers so that they might produce better chewing gum with longer lasting flavors. She often takes trains, planes, and hovercraft to get to her destinations. Of which theme is this an example?

Chapter 2: Earth’s Physical Geography

1. What two factors cause the Earth to have seasons?
2. Why is there a six month period at the North Pole when the sun never sets and it is always daytime?
3. What is the theory of plate tectonics?
4. What is the difference between weather and climate?
5. The Earth’s rotation causes us to have east-west winds. What two factors cause us to have north-south winds?
6. Why might a place near a large body of water have a milder climate than another place at the same latitude, but further inland?
7. What kinds of vegetation will a person find in a Continental climate?

Chapter 3: The Earth’s Human Geography

1. What is the Push-Pull Theory?
2. Farmer Bob wants to migrate with his family from their current location. Based upon what we have learned, what kind of region would be most attractive to Bob and his family?
3. How have advances in medical care affected population growth in recent years?
4. What are some conditions that might push people to leave their country? Name at least two.
5. What are some conditions that might pull people to a new country or location? Name at least two.
6. The town of Littleville has a population of 2100 people. The town occupies an area of 50 square miles. What is the population density of Littleville?
7. The Death Star has a population of 12,000 people. It has a total area of 20 square miles. What is the population density of the Death Star? (If you don’t know what the Death Star is, then you need to watch all the Star Wars movies as soon as possible).

Chapter 4: Cultures of the World

Cultures (These questions all apply to the Culture Standard)
1. What is culture?
2. In the Kingdom of Kersegonia there is a small, primitive tribe of people called the Watooties who live deep in the forests amongst the trees. In the Watootie language there are thirty-seven different words for tree bark. What does this tell us about the Watootie culture?
3. Bob and is family were hunter-gatherers, along with the rest of the tribe, until one day Bob and some friends figured out how to grow food and raise livestock. What did agriculture allow Bob and his tribe to do?
4. What are the four stages of cultural development that every culture has gone through?
5. Why is religion important to a culture?
6. What are three things that cause cultural change?
7. Pick one of the factors that you mentioned in question six above and explain how it can cause cultural change.

Economics (These questions all apply to the Economics Standard).
1. What are goods and services?
2. Give an example of a basic business or industry and explain why it is a basic business.
3. In the Kindgom of Gondor, many people grow food and sell or trade what they do not need for other goods and services. Some people are craftsmen or merchants, and sell their products or services to make a living. The government of Gondor provides the people with protection from orcs and goblins in exchange for some taxes, but does not interfere too much with how people conduct their business. What kind of economic system does Gondor have? How do you know?
4. In the land of Mordor, across the river from Gondor, Lord Sauron rules all. He controls what his orcs do, where they work, and how much they produce. His government decides how any money or wealth gets distributed throughout the land. What kind of economic system does Mordor have? How do you know?

Political Systems (These questions apply to the Government Standard).
1. Draw a picture or diagram that demonstrates how a representative democracy works. Start with the citizens and work your way to the government. Label your diagram appropriately.
2. In what situation does a direct democracy work best? Why?
3. How might a dictator stay in power, even though he’s mean or abusive?

Chapter 5: The Earth’s Natural Resources

1. Why are natural resources important? (III, VI)
2. Tell me what the three types of natural resources are and give two examples for each.
3. What are some problems that face developing nations? (VI)
4. In what stage of resource development are most people in developing nations? In what stage of resource development are most people in highly developed nations?
5. Draw a diagram or flow chart that shows how fossil fuels, energy, and pollution are related. Be sure to label your diagram to help me understand it.
6. Explain how air pollution can end up in our water supply.

Chapter 6: The Physical Geography of Europe and Russia

1. Why is the climate of northwestern Europe more mild than one might expect, especially along the coasts?
2. Describe the natural vegetation of Russia.
3. Western Europeans have done a great job of developing and using their natural resources. Why has Russia not done as well, even though they have far more resources than Western Europe?

Chapter 7: Europe and Russia Shaped by History

1. Describe how democracy in Ancient Greece differed from democracy today.
2. What was the Pax Romana?
3. In Feudal times, what would serfs do in return for the protection of the Lords?
4. Describe what happened during the Renaissance in the areas of learning, the arts, and trade.
5. When the Industrial Revolution took hold in Europe, huge numbers of people moved from the country to the cities. In just 100 years the population of London grew from 831,000 to 4.5 million people, and Paris from 547,000 to 2.9 million. Why did people move to the cities during this period of time?
6. What are the three main themes of Russian history?
7. Why did Lenin think communism would appeal to the Russian people in 1917?

Chapter 8: Cultures of Europe and Russia

1. Why are cities the cultural centers in Western Europe (and in the rest of the world, for that matter)?
2. What were the two main causes of urbanization in Western Europe in the late 1700s and early 1800s?
3. Why is there ease of movement in Western Europe? (By “movement,” I mean the theme of movement).
4. Why can long-standing ethnic conflicts, such as those in Eastern Europe, or in Israel and Palestine, be so difficult to solve?
5. Under communism, why did almost all the production of art halt in the Soviet Union? (Hint: What did the communist government think art should be used for?)

Chapter 9: The Fascinating World of Western Europe

1. What did the nobles force King John to sign in 1215 and what did this document do?
2. Why did the East German government erect the Berlin Wall?
3. What are two major influences on French culture?
4. How was Germany divided at the end of World War II?
5. Compare and contrast the ways of life in northern and southern Italy.
6. What do you think will happen to the French culture in the future? Will it stay the same? Will it change? Why?
7. What are some positive and negative effects of the many benefits that the Swedish government gives its people? (Give at least one positive and one negative effect).
8. How is the reunification of East and West Germany similar to the attempts by the Italian government to help Southern Italy? How is it different?

Chapter 10: The Wonder of Eastern Europe!

1. What is one example of how communism did not change the traditions of the Polish people?
2. What three main ethnic groups were involved in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, and why were they fighting?
3. What happened to most Ukrainian farmers under Soviet rule in the late 1920s?
4. What are some ways the Soviet government tried to change Siberia?
5. Describe the economic challenges the countries of Eastern Europe (and Russia) faced after the fall of communism.
6. How is life in an Eastern European village different from life in the cities? Use specific examples to support your answer.

Chapter 11: Africa’s Physical Geography

1. List the four (or five) major regions of Africa.
2. Why are many African nations trying to diversify their economies?
3. What is the difference between a subsistence farmer and a farmer who grows cash crops?
4. Describe precipitation in Africa. What are some problems caused by Africa’s precipitation patterns?
5. What is infrastructure? Why is it important? (This is not in the book. If this question were to be on a test, it would be announced ahead of time).
6. What are some problems with the major rivers in Africa, such as the Nile? How do these problems hurt Africa economically?
7. How does elevation affect different regions in Africa?
8. How is climate change hurting the people of Africa?
9. Why are possible solutions to economic problems in Africa so difficult to implement?

Chapter 12: Africa: Shaped by History

1. Imagine you are a farmer in Western Botswana. You grow a little wheat, and use that to sell or trade at a nearby market to provide for your family. You’ve had problems recently with soil erosion, and this year a large portion of your crop was killed by a fungus. You are really in trouble, since this your only crop, and your family is running out of money fast. What are two things you can do for the next growing season to improve your farm?
2. What were the effects of slavery on West Africa?
3. What are some challenges faced by the governments of the new independent African nations today?
4. Describe the movement of Pan-Africanism.

Chapter 13: The Cultures of Africa

1. What are the Five Pillars of Islam, and what is the holy book of Islam? Why are many Muslims concerned about western influence?
2. Why is Islam important to the different people of North Africa?
3. Describe the culture(s) of West Africa.
4. What is the primary, or main, reason for the cultural diversity in East Africa?
5. Describe the origins of Swahili culture.
6. How has South Africa affected the region of Southern Africa economically?

Chapter 14: Exploring North Africa

1. What is Ramadan?
2. What is Sharia and how does it affect the laws of Egypt?
3. What is one issue facing women in Egypt today regarding the way they may dress?
4. What is one example of the importance of family to the Berbers?
5. What differences might have caused conflicts between Berbers and Arabs?

Chapter 15 Test: Exploring West Africa

1. Why did Mali’s culture develop around trade and the raising of livestock?
2. How did Britain affect the development of Nigeria and Ghana?

These sample questions will continue to be updated as needed.

Sample Test Questions for World History 2009-2013)

These questions are from a previous course of study and text book that I used from 2009-2013. Don't use these if you are currently taking my 7th grade World History class unless you know what you're doing. Otherwise, feel free to borrow or use these as you see fit.

Chapter 1: Uncovering the Past

1. History is the study of the past. What sorts of things are historians interested in learning about?
2. What is the difference between a primary source and a secondary source? Give examples of each.
3. Compare and contrast the job of an historian and an archeologist.
4. You are an archeologist working to excavate an ancient city. You discover a tablet covered in an unknown form of writing, along with various pictures of warriors dressed for battle. What sorts of things might you be able to learn from this artifact?
5. What are the five themes of geography and how do they help us understand the world?
6. Explain the geographic theme of Human-Environment Interaction. Give an example.
7. Read the quote below and answer the question that follows.
"They are the captains and kings, saints and fanatics, traitors, rogues and villains, pathfinders and explorers, thinkers and creators, even, occasionally, heroes. They are significant - if not necessarily admirable...they matter. They are the actors, not the acted upon, and are consequently that much more interesting." - Barbara W. Tuchman, from Practicing History: Selected Essays
What kinds of people is the author interested in learning about? Why?

Below is a map of the city of Bomba-Wanda, the capital of the ancient Kersegonian civilization. Use the map to answer the questions that follow.

The City of Bomba-Wanda

8. Using the map, what do you think was the most important part of life in Bomba-Wanda? Why?
9. Using the map as a source, how do you think the Kersegonians made their living? Why?

Chapter 5: Ancient India

1. In what region did the Harappan civilization develop? Why do you think this was a likely place for a civilization to arise?
2. Why have historians been unable to learn a great deal about the Harappans?
3. What group took control of the Indus River Valley after the decline of the Harappans?
4. What are the Vedas?
5. What were the four main varnas in Aryan society? How did these develop into a caste system?
6. Briefly explain how Hinduism developed.
7. Explain the four major beliefs of Hinduism that we discussed.
8. What are the four principles by which the Jains live?
9. How did Siddhartha Gautama search for wisdom, and what did he realize?
10. What are the Four Noble Truths?
11. Explain what is meant when we describe Buddhism as "the middle way."
12. What is the difference between the Theravada and Mahayana branches of Buddhism?
13. How did the Mauryan and Gupta empires better the lives of people in ancient India? Give examples.
14. How did converting to Buddhism change the leadership of Asoka?
15. What were three scientific advances that were developed by the Ancient Indians? Explain why they are so awesome.
16. Compare and contrast Buddhism and Hinduism.
17. Describe the rise and fall of the Mauryan Empire between 320 BC and 180 BC.
18. In general, would you say that people's lives were better or worse under the Mauryan and Gupta Empires? Why?
19. How did Asoka contribute to the spread of Buddhism both in and outside of India?
20. Describe two advances in math or science that you think are the most significant. Why do you think they are important?

Chapter 7: The Hebrews and Judaism

1. What did Abraham and Moses do for the Hebrews?
2. Why is the Exodus significant in Hebrew history? Why is it important for other groups?
3. What is the Diaspora? Give two examples of Jews being scattered outside of Israel.
4. What are the four main beliefs of Judaism that we discussed? Explain each of them in a sentence or two.
5. What are the differences between Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Jews?
6. What are the three parts of the Tanach?
7. Give some examples of how Jewish ideas have influenced the Western world.
8. What was the result of the two Jewish revolts against the Romans?
9. How did monotheism affect and shape the history of the Hebrews?
10. How does Mosaic law affect the daily lives of Jewish people?
11. What are some short term and long term effects of the Exodus?

Chapter 11, Section 2: The Roman Empire and Religion (Christianity)

1. On what religion were the teachings of Christianity based?
2. Why did many Jews believe the Messiah would soon appear?
3. Where is the story of Jesus recorded?
4. Why was Jesus arrested and executed?
5. Describe the spread of Christianity from Jesus to about AD 400.
6. How did the geography of the Roman Empire affect the spread of Christianity?

Chapter 12: The Islamic World

1. Imagine you are a merchant and trader living in a town along a trade route in Arabia in the year 571. Describe your daily life and surroundings.
2. You are a nomad in Arabia in the year 573. Explain the importance of your herd of sheep, goats, and camels.
3. Your name is Ahmad. You are a wealthy merchant living in Mecca in the year 614. You do not like the new teachings of this Muhammad person. Explain two reasons why you do not agree with the teachings of this new religion, Islam.
4. What are three sources of guidance and Islamic beliefs for Muslims that we talked about.
5. List and briefly explain the Five Pillars of Islam.
6. How might the concept of jihad be a source of conflict or misunderstanding between Muslims and non-Muslims?
7. Describe the two major ways that the religion of Islam spread throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa.
8. Using our look at the Islamic world as a starting point, describe some of the benefits of long-distance trade.
9. Which of the Five Pillars of Islam do you think would be the most difficult to follow? Why?
10. Which do you think was more effective at spreading Islam, trade or conquest? Why?
11. Explain why gunpowder was such an important item for trade and for people who wanted it.
12. What was the most important contribution of Muslim scholars to the world? Why?

Chapter 13: Early African Civilizations

1. It is the year 1112. Imagine you are a trader from Northern Africa who is about to travel to West Africa. List five items that you would take with you if you were to travel across the Sahara in a caravan. Explain why each item is necessary.
2. What resources did people in West Africa have to trade? Why were these resources valuable? What kinds of items did people in West Africa need? Why did they need them?
3. Explain three reasons why Ghana was such a powerful empire.
4. Explain three reasons for Ghana's decline.
5. What factor or factors helped each of the empires of Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Great Zimbabwe become so wealthy and powerful. Why?
6. How was Islam important to trade in the west African empires?
7. How were griots important to west African culture?

Chapter 17: The Early Middle Ages

1. Which region of Europe that we discussed is the best for farming? Why?
2. What events brought unity to Europe in the early middle ages?
3. What was the primary reason for the development of feudalism in Europe?
4. Draw a chart that depicts the organization of feudal society. Be sure to include kings, nobles, lesser nobles, knights, peasants and serfs.
5. Compare and contrast Feudal Europe with Feudal Japan.
6. Explain why towns grew during the late mid and late medieval period.
7. What were two or three things that Charlemagne did to improve the lives of the people in his empire?
8. You are Lord Calvin the Stupendous. You rule over a large manor, with many knights and servants. What are your obligations to your king, and what are your obligations to the serfs and peasants who work your land?
9. Remember the State of Nature described by Thomas Hobbes? Explain how feudalism is a better system than Hobbes' world without government.

Read the document below and answer the questions that follow.

A Contract Between a Villein & His Lord, 1307

During the Middle Ages, economic life centered on the manor. Lords received manors from kings and other lords in return for military service. A manor consisted of the lord's house; cottages for his tenants; a church, mill, and workshops; and woodlands, fields, and pastures. Most of the tenants were serfs bound to the manor for life. Other tenants, called villeins, were legally free but subject to the authority of the lord.

Each villein had a contract with his lord spelling out his rights and duties. Eventually lords wrote these contracts down in account books so that everyone would know what the duties were. An example of such an account book follows:

John of Cayworth [villein] holds from his lord one house and thirty acres of land. For his right to this land, he must pay the lord two shillings a year at Easter and Michaelmas. At Christmas he must give the lord one cock and two hens worth four shillings.

He must harrow [cultivate] the lord's land for two days during Lent at sowing time with his own horse and harrow. He receives from the lord each day that he harrows three meals.

He must carry the manure of the lord's animals for two days using his own two oxen. He receives from the lord three meals each day that he carries the manure.

He must carry wood from the lord's forest to the manor house for two days in summer. He receives from the lord three meals each day that he carries wood.

John of Cayworth may not allow his daughters to marry without the consent of the lord or the lord's bailiff. Neither may he permit his sons to enter the clergy without the lord's consent. He may not cut the timber growing on his land without the consent of his lord or the bailiff, and then only for the purpose of building.

After his death, his survivors will pay to the lord the best animal that he had, unless he has no living beast, and then the lord will receive no payment.

And if his sons or daughters wish to continue holding his house and thirty acres after his death, they must make a payment to the lord equal to the entire rent for one year, and continue paying the rent as set down in this contract.

10. What is a villein?
11. How much money does John of Cayworth have to pay his lord at Easter and again at Michaelmas (September 29)? What must he give his lord at Christmas?
12. What tasks must John of Cayworth complete each year for the lord?
13. What does John of Cayworth get in return for all his trouble?

Chapter 18: The Later Middle Ages

1. Explain the relationship between the Holy Roman Emperors and the popes.
2. Explain one source of conflict between popes and kings in the middle ages.
3. How did the Crusades change the relationships between Christians and other groups like Jews and Muslims?
4. Do you think the Crusades were mostly successful or not? Explain your answer.
5. How did the Church become so politically powerful in the later middle ages?
6. List three things that we discussed that led to widespread social change in Europe. Which one was the most significant? Why?
7. What were some of the effects of the Black Death on medieval society? Explain your answer.
8. How can the Magna Carta be considered the beginning of democracy in Europe?
9. Explain how the Hundred Years' War affected the power of kings in Britain and France.
10. Why do you think the Church considered heresy such a threat?
11. Explain some ways that the Church affected the lives of ordinary people in Europe.
12. How did the Crusades demonstrate the power of the Church in Europe?
13. What were of the short and long term effects of the Reconquista?
14. Describe the Church's reaction to challengers in the late middle ages.

Read the quote below then answer the questions that follow.

Whereas all know that kings and princes are descendants of men who were ignorant of God, and who, by arrogance, robbery, perfidy [treachery], murder--in a word by almost every crime--at the prompting of the prince of this world, the devil, strove with blind avarice and intolerable presumption to gain the mastery over their equals, that is, over mankind....Who doubts that the priests of Christ should be regarded as the fathers and masters of kings and princes, and of all the faithful?" - Pope Gregory VII in a letter to Bishop Hermann of Metz (1081)
15. How does Pope Gregory think kings and princes get their power?
16. According to Gregory, who should have authority over kings?

Chapter 19: The Renaissance and Reformation

1. What two important roles did Italian city-states play in the economic development of Italy and Europe? Give examples.
2. The Black Death actually had some positive effects on the lives of people in Europe. What were some of these effects and why were they good things?
3. What were two ways banks made money in Florence during the Renaissance? Briefly explain.
4. Discuss some of the sources of inspiration for Renaissance writers and artists.
5. What did Niccolo Machiavelli write about in The Prince?
6. How did art change during the Renaissance? Give some examples.
7. What were some differences between art from Northern Europe and Italian art during the Renaissance?
8. Explain some of the Church practices that people objected to at the beginning of the Reformation.
9. What were some of Martin Luther's complaints about the Church?
10. Explain the key beliefs of Calvinism.
11. Describe how the Church responded to the Protestant movement.
12. Explain some of the political and social effects of the Protestant Reformation in Europe.
13. Explain how the three ideas, people, or events that follow are related to each other: Trade and/or wealth; Art; Humanism
14. Explain how the three ideas, people, or events that follow are related to each other: Martin Luther; printing press and/or movable type; Council of Trent
15. Read the passage below from Machiavelli's The Prince and answer the question that follows.
A controversy has arisen about this: whether it is better to be loved than feared, or vice versa. My view it that it is desirable to be both loved and feared; but it is difficult to achieve both and, if one of them has to be lacking, it is much safer to be feared than loved....For love is sustained by a bond of gratitude which, because men are excessively self-interested, is broken whenever they see a chance to benefit themselves. But fear is sustained by a dread of punishment that is always effective.
What advice is Machiavelli giving in this quote, and do you agree with it? Why or why not?

Chapter 20: Science and Exploration

1. List and explain two reasons why European countries sponsored Voyages of Discovery in the late 1400s and the 1500s. (I)
2. What was the Columbian Exchange? What were some of its effects? (I)
3. Explain mercantilism. (I, IV)
4. What were three reasons for the growth of a market economy in Europe during the 1500s? (I, IV)
5. Who was Sir Isaac Newton, and what did he do?
6. List and explain two reasons why European countries sponsored Voyages of Discovery.
7. What was Vasco da Gama’s great accomplishment?

Chapter 21: Enlightenment and Revolution

1. What were the three goals of Enlightenment thinkers? What would achieving these goals accomplish? (II, V)
2. What ideas were shared by John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau? How were these ideas different from those of most monarchs at the time? (II, V)
3. Explain how Enlightenment ideas about government and the rights of people influenced events in America and France. (II, V)
4. Read the passage below and then answer the question that follows. (II, V, VI)
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government..." - from The Declaration of Independence

Of the Enlightenment thinkers that we discussed, whose ideas are most represented in the above passage? Why?

5. How would the daily life of a peasant have been changed in France after the French Revolution? (II, V)
6. Compare the causes of the revolutions in the British Colonies and in France. (I)
7. Compare and contrast the nature of the revolutions in the British Colonies and in France. (I)

Chapter 22: Revolutions and Nations

1. Briefly describe two things that Napoleon Bonaparte did as emperor that reflected the ideals of the French Revolution and Enlightenment thinkers. Next, describe two things he did that did not demonstrate the ideals of the French Revolution.
2. What was Napoleon's greatest military blunder? What were the effects of his mistake?
3. What were the goals of conservatives at the Congress of Vienna?
4. What were some of the economic effects of the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 1800s?
5. Explain how industrialism led to the rise of imperialism in the late 1800s.
6. Complete the chart below by explaining the causes of imperialism.
Causes of Imperialism

Chapter 23: Global Conflict

1. List and briefly explain the five main causes of the first World War. (MANIA)
2. How was Germany punished for its role in World War I?
3. Briefly describe how the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia, creating the world's first communist state.
4. What is fascism, and how did it become popular in the years following World War I?
5. Make a chart listing the Allied and Axis powers in World War II.
6. What factors led to the end of colonialism? Give a couple of examples.
7. What was the Cold War?
8. What types of items move from country to country in a global economy?
9. What is terrorism? Why might certain kinds of groups or organizations decide to use terrorist tactics?